Leadership and Workplace Bullying

bitch-in-the-workplaceFirst, we would be remiss if we didn’t acknowledge Nexus LAB’s work on leadership released this week. Leadership Matters’ own Anne Ackerson was part of the team that worked for four years, talking, writing, designing better paths to leadership for museums, libraries, and archives. If you haven’t taken a look at the Layers of Leadership, print it, stick it up over your desk, and see where you and your colleagues are.

Next, we’d like to talk about an issue common to many workplaces not just museums. In the past month we’ve observed two organizations where staff were essentially hounded out of their positions. Neither organization is unsophisticated nor underfunded. Each has layers of leadership, and yet at the critical assistant or associate layer there was and is ongoing failure to lead. The “why” is not something we will ever know. The “how” speaks to executive directors who may believe their leadership teams function well, and not realize what’s going on. That in itself is a bit scary. As an ED, shouldn’t you be aware of everything that’s going on particularly when it comes to HR? And how well do you know your leadership team if, at the end of the day, they’ve forced someone to leave? What message does that send to remaining staff?

In a nutshell, both individuals, at very different organizations, were made aware that their performance wasn’t up to snuff. No, this wasn’t done in an annual performance review, nor was it done in a series of calm meetings with advance notice provided, where expectations were laid out and timelines set. Instead, associate/assistant directors criticized, berated, and belittled. The end game seemed to be to make the employee leave of his or her own accord. Whoa, you say, does that really happen? Yup. Probably more than anyone acknowledges.

There is no law against being Cruella Deville in the workplace. In fact, it’s one of the few places left where as long as you don’t cross the Title VII lines, you are allowed to be a bully. Should you be? Heck no. But can you be? Sure. These situations rarely happen once. They are often a series of incidents, that accrete over time; where, for example, responsibilities are subtly increased while authority is diminished. Or where an employee is constantly the victim of understated remarks about performance, ability, and organizational loyalty, often in public. Just to underscore how bullying this behavior is, it’s sometimes coupled with comments about the employee’s emotional state—“You seem angry;” or “You seem upset;” What can we do to work on that?” or “You know you need to keep your emotions in check at the workplace.” The latter is one frequently aimed at women. Public displays of emotion, particularly in the workplace, are hugely gendered. Studies show that men demonstrating anger makes them seem competent and may lead to promotion. Not so for women where anger–especially if it is coupled with tears– is perceived as the exact opposite–a lack of capability.

So, if you’re an executive director of an organization large enough to have a leadership team supervising staff, what should you do?

  • Make sure you are apprised of all ongoing HR issues. Ask questions. Ask for transparency. If things are going as they should be, you’ll receive all the evidence you need. If they’re not, push back. Don’t assume.
  • If you don’t have an HR office, seek advice from a professional particularly when an employee appears to be struggling. Does he or she have a job description? Has she had an annual performance review? Have her abilities changed overnight or has her supervisor changed? Who’s new on the team, and how was that transition handled?
  • Make sure you have an equitable HR policy coupled with job descriptions for all staff.
  • Know workplace bullying when you see it. Don’t tolerate it.

Joan Baldwin

Advertisements

When You’re Not a Museum Leader: Seven Ways to Act Like One

act-like-a-leader

Not everyone comes to the museum field eager for leadership. Sometimes we’re moved forward. Sometimes we realize we’re ready for it and we move ourselves forward, but all too often leadership is an unintentional consequence. Like when you become the education director and find out that you’re supervising a staff of 50 volunteers, but only until the organization hires a volunteer coordinator. In the next fiscal year. Suddenly you’re a boss of a lot of people some of whom are old enough to be your parents or your grandparents.

On the other hand, if you aspire to museum leadership, but aren’t there yet, you may have heard or read the phrase, “you can lead from anywhere in the room.” We used it more than a few times in Leadership Matters. And we believe it, but to the uninitiated, it may be hard to figure out how to look like a leader when you’re in row three at an all-staff meeting, and potentially the youngest or newest person in the organization. So here–in no particular order– are some strategies for figuring out leadership before you get the job.

  1. Learn how to say you’re sorry. All leaders make mistakes. And if you can’t humble yourself in front of your team, there won’t be much trust there. The next time you mess up, get out in front of the error quickly. Apologize to your boss and your colleagues and offer strategies, either personal or organizational, for moving forward.
  2. Separate the parts of your job over which you have authority from those where you’re the one responsible. In many museums there are the worker bees who take on more and more work. Why? Because they’re great time managers, they have a sense of duty, and their bosses know a good thing when they see it. But multiple responsibilities don’t add up to authority. They add up to a huge to-do list over which you have little control in the end. The result? You are angry or sad or possibly both. Make a list. Separate your job into areas over which you have real authority, and the areas where you’re responsible. Be strategic. At your next job review, advocate for increased authority.
  3. Enthusiasm isn’t everything. Be strategic when talking about your work. Let your director (or direct report) know why you like something. Hearing general enthusiasm for working with collections isn’t the same as hearing your enthusiasm about finally moving the Excel files to the new open-access collections management program.
  4. Don’t hang out with the office gossip. Every office has one and museum workplaces are offices. That person has defined power as knowing as much as she or he can about everyone. Back-stabbing and talking behind people’s back is not the path to leadership.
  5.  Embrace change. Every office also has the person who can’t cope with change. They mournfully explain why new ideas won’t work, describing in painful detail how some variation of what’s just been proposed didn’t work 15 years ago. Or was it seven years ago? Don’t be that person. In fact, be the person who gently shuts them down and suggests experimenting.
  6. Support your colleagues. They don’t have to be your friends, and you never have to see them three sheets to the wind at the office holiday event, but you need one another to make stuff happen. That’s why you come to work. To make stuff happen. So don’t judge. Just assume everybody’s trying their best.
  7. Advocate for your program, project, exhibit or idea. If you don’t care about what you’re doing enough to talk about it, why should anyone else?

And let us know how you lead when you’re not the person with the title.

Joan Baldwin


Breaking Away from “Stupid”: Maybe It’s New Staff, Not New Data?

breaking-up

Last week our post on bullying brought comments about how bullies and staff in general are hired. Several of the commenters offered potential interview techniques to weed out the mean, the lazy, and the pompous. If you also read Christy Coleman’s blog post “Are History Museums Stuck on Stupid?” you can’t help but wonder if, as Coleman says, “too many [museums] are stuck in pedagogical or operating models that simply don’t work well anymore.” And, if you didn’t read it, you should.

Coleman chastises the field for wringing its collective hands as visitation declines; for meeting locally, regionally and nationally to hear about whatever the next big thing is when there is no one-size-fits-all cure; and for believing data is the magic elixir that will send visitation soaring. She concludes by offering an example of visitor engagement from The American Civil War Museum where she is the CEO. No surprise, its visitation has grown slowly and steadily over the last five years as Coleman and her staff engage their community in its own story. (We profile Coleman in our book, Leadership Matters, BTW.)

One of the smartest things Coleman says is “Museums want to be taken seriously, but often the biggest mistake is framing exhibits and programs for other colleagues.” In other words, don’t preach to the choir. What she doesn’t mention–at least overtly–is museums may be stuck on stupid (or mediocre) because their staff (and boards) need a shake up. We know there’s no shortage of eager, optimistic museum graduate students trying desperately to break into the field. Why then, especially in the world of history museums and heritage organizations, are so many museums trapped doing what they’ve always done: the roped off room; the docent-led tour; the exhibit of like objects with brief, yet grave, labels? What would happen if these same museums broke with tradition and hired an English major, an art major, or a psychology minor? Would our careful world implode if we looked at things differently? What if the English major’s charge was to figure out a house museum’s narrative and the places where it intersects with today’s world. Today the word revolutionary can have a slightly nasty tinge, but what about when it’s applied to 18th-century Boston? How are those revolutionaries different?

To ask these kind of questions you have to have a staff who is creative, non-judgmental, and whose primary concern is making their narrative resonate in their community. And to be clear, their community is the place where their historic house, heritage organization or museum is located. It’s not where the board lives or where the staff lives. If this is the staff you want, then your interview techniques not only have to suss out whether job applicants are vain and lazy, but whether they think in original ways, what books are on their bedside table, what was the last movie they saw, and when was the last time they took a risk, and whether it paid off. You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to know that rule- or tradition-bound cultures drive creative people away. Here’s Lolly Daskel on why they leave: 10 Dumb Rules That Make Your Best People Want to Quit.

To break out you have to want to break out. I’m fond of quoting David Young, Director of Cliveden in Philadelphia (and another Leadership Matters interviewee), who said organizations have to “allow leadership.” I would alter that and say organizations have to want change, and that begins with who you hire.

How is your museum breaking out of the loop?

Joan Baldwin

 


Does Your Organization Own its Leadership?

Let leadership

Think of this post as a letter, a letter to all the boards of trustees searching for new directors, to headhunters, to museum administrators in large organizations looking for new curators or department heads, and to graduate school professors charged with molding the leaders of the future.

You write the job description with its list of characteristics and set it loose online. Based on AAM’s current list of job openings,  here’s what museums, science centers and heritage organizations want from aspiring leaders. They need to be collaborative, intelligent, thoughtful, problem solving, ethical. They should possess high emotional intelligence and be community minded. They must also be able to make decisions, be creative, solve problems, and exercise good judgement.

It is probably unfair to criticize job descriptions randomly, but if you read enough of these you wonder why anyone yearns for a museum leadership position–clearly you take the world on your shoulders–leave aside why an organization feels it necessary to say it wants applicants to be intelligent. Really? Is the opposite “We’re looking for an average sort of person who will maintain this organization without challenging us too much so we as board members can fulfill our terms with a modicum of energy?” What is important here is that leadership doesn’t just reside in an individual. Organizations that matter own their leadership.

Recently I’ve turned back to one of our interviews for Leadership Matters, this one with David Young, the Director of Cliveden in Philadelphia. Young is well-spoken, thoughtful, and courageous. What sticks with me about his interview is his insistence that leadership is organic and organizational.  In fact, the last line of his interview is, “A lot of organizations have to allow leadership. It has to be needed and wanted.”

Of course museums want great leaders, but it is a rare individual who is the sole catalyst for dynamic, systemic organizational change. No one works alone. Change happens because organizations are open to it. Dynamic organizations begin a search by recalibrating, checking in. Who and what have they become during the outgoing leader’s tenure? Are they happy with it? If yes, how can it be sustained? If no, what changes do they need to make? New directors aren’t magicians, lion tamers or psychologists although at times they may have to master skills from all three professions. And they don’t make change alone. Good leaders inspire, motivate, and outline a vision for the future that pulls board, staff and volunteers in is wake. But the board’s role is to understand the organization, to know where it wants it to go, and most of all to be open to change and to challenge.

Does your organization own its leadership? How do you know?

Joan Baldwin


What We’re Reading or Wish We Were Reading

reading

Anne and I are away this week speaking at the Intercom: Leadership for a Sustainable Museum conference. We’re presenting with Marsha Semmel, who wrote the foreword to Leadership Matters, and David Young, the ED of Cliveden in Philadelphia and one of the book’s interviewees. We’ll report on the conference when we return.

In the meantime, here is a quirky list of what we’re reading, watching or listening to, in addition to a list of things we haven’t quite gotten to yet, but we will. Enjoy. And share your list please!

Joan Baldwin & Anne Ackerson


What We’ve Read or We’re Reading:

Bad Feminist, Roxanne Gay (Harper Perennial, 2014)

We Should All Be Feminists, Chiamanda Ngozi Adiche (Anchor Books, 2014)

“Why Women Still Can’t Have It All,” Anne-Marie Slaughter, The Atlantic, July/August, 2012.

“What’s Holding Women Back in the Workplace?” Nikki Waller and Joann S. Lublin, September 30, 2015

What Works for Women at Work, Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey (NYU Press, 2014)

“Boys Don’t Cry..But Should CEOs?” Roger Jones, October 24, 2015

The Danger of a Single Story Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Ted Talks, July 2009


What’s On the To-Read List:

Anarchist’s Guide to Historic House Museums. Frank Vagnone and Deborah Ryan (Left Coast, 2015)

“Centered Leadership:  How Talented Women Thrive,” Joanna Barsh, Susie Cranston, and Rebecca A. Craske, McKinsey Quarterly, September 2008.

“The Bamboo Project,” Michele Martin’s career advice blog that’s chock full of great insights and creative solutions to divining and defining work you love.


If You Don’t Know Yourself, You Don’t Know Anything

pigeonholed

Hello, again. After some lively discussion about Women+Museums, this week we return to questions of leadership. Recently, we’ve been talking a lot about self-awareness in anticipation of our trip to AAM in April. In Leadership Matters we identified four traits–authenticity, self-awareness, courage and vision– associated with the leaders we interviewed. Those were characteristics that floated to the surface from our interviews, not labels we pinned on our interviewees. But the more we think and talk and observe leadership, we believe self-awareness is the most important of the four. Why? Because if you don’t know yourself, you don’t know anything. Truly. It’s that important. You can create magical exhibits, read spreadsheets in your sleep, balance your budget, write a brilliant grant application, and be a friend to all your staff, but if you don’t know yourself, you’re in trouble.

Self-awareness is everywhere these days. It’s in the business literature; it’s on NPR; it’s in women’s magazines and the Harvard Business Review. Here’s what self-awareness isn’t: It’s not taking a personality test like Myers Briggs or the PAEI and identifying with one personality type or other. Knowing that you’re a “producer” or an “entrepreneur” doesn’t solve anything unless you know what to do with the information.

And completing a personality test doesn’t give you a free pass. Knowing you are a “champion” or an “innovator” doesn’t mean that you’ve fixed anything. Nor does it mean that once your colleagues know you’re “authoritarian” they’re going to buy into that. Yikes. They’re probably busy feeling proud of their diagnostic abilities. They knew you were bossy and self-centered and now the test proved it. If this scenario happens to you what do you do? Well, it’s likely you’re not all authoritarian. Find the other parts of you and work on them. Self-knowledge isn’t anything you finish. It simply provides the information that helps you understand how you as a leader work with others in your department, team, or museum.

Know that you aren’t one thing all the time. You’ll likely have two or more personality types that compete for air time in the you that is you. You may come to understand that you’re more creative–an idea factory some days–but follow through isn’t your strong suit. What does that tell you? Well, you could search for a position where your primary responsibility is to be an idea factory. Or you could be strategic about the people you team up with so that your skills complement theirs. The same goes if you, the mad creative type, are a leader. Knowing your primary and secondary strengths allows you to build a team that reinforces and complements each other. There is a sports analogy here, but I will leave it alone. The point is that good leaders are constantly aware of how they’re “playing” to those around them. There is a rhythm to the way they work: self-understanding, experimentation, reflection. That individual strategy works organizationally too.

So this week try this: after meetings, after one-on-ones, after speeches, reflect. Think about what worked and what didn’t. If you could wave the “do-over” wand, what would you change? Why? Then go forward and tweak. Adjust. Change. Try again. Being a leader isn’t an end point. It’s simply a different job title. Life is change. Good leaders are prepared for it by knowing themselves and being ready to adapt.

Joan Baldwin


Modeling Courage: What’s It All About?

imagesWe thought a lot about courage when writing Leadership Matters. When we began, if you’d asked us to write down our top three leadership characteristics, courage might not have made the list. But as we listened and questioned our 36 leaders, it was clear that courage is key. Courage is often the catalyst, because without courage vision is missing and without vision there is no action. That’s actually rooted in a bit of Aristotle, who, among other things, wrote, “Courage is the first of the human qualities because it is the one that guarantees all others.”

Too often we associate courage with strength not leadership, with Navy SEALs rescuing Captain Phillips on the high seas, with a lone survivor’s harrowing return to civilization or a wounded warrior’s mountain summit. But in the world of history museums and heritage organizations there’s not much call for daring-do or brute strength–well, maybe there is, but that’s another blog. Courage in the history museum world is more nuanced and more personal, and definitely a necessary facet in a leader’s profile.

Why courage? Because sometimes being mediocre isn’t the right choice. Sometimes leaders have to take the counterintuitive approach and push, pull and drag an organization outside its proverbial comfort zone. That takes courage. As one of our interviewees said, “Courage is about conveying vision and having the strength to sell something even when it doesn’t make any sense.” Courageous leaders are entrepreneurial. They are willing to challenge outdated rituals and deal with uncomfortable situations. Which brings us to the personal side of courage and leadership. Courageous leaders have to be willing to go first.  That sounds dubious, but it’s important. Leaders lead by modeling. If you want your board to pay attention to its strategic plan, you need to make a centerpiece. If you believe the mission statement is old, tired and boring, you need to stick your neck out and offer everyone a new version to tweak, change and challenge.

And be ready to live with the results. In these situations being courageous doesn’t mean maintaining control. It means quite the opposite particularly when it comes to feedback. When it’s time for evaluations, why not go first? Offer your team or staff the criteria you’ll use for their annual reviews and ask that they apply them to you. Have them work together. Listen to what they say. Take it to heart. It takes courage for any leader to make herself vulnerable, but leadership is about learning, constantly holding oneself up and examining strengths and weaknesses. Don’t ever confuse an open door policy with a 360-degree review. It’s the asking for help that builds trust, and that’s what takes courage.